List of Female Poets

Since I began this list there have been a great many changes.  For instance, there is now a May Sinclair Society and a great deal more information is available via the Internet about the lesser-known poets.

The poets I have included are listed in alphabetical order. With regard to countries, I have started with Britain, then America and so on.  I have also kept the Irish poets separate.  Newfoundland and Tasmania were also separate countries at the time of The First World War.

This is very much an on-going exhibition project - I am still compiling the list and as the Centenary of the First World War progresses, more and more poets are being discovered.   I will do my best to include as many of them as possible.

I decided early on when researching that I would like to illustrate the global impact of the First World War by including female poets from as many countries as possible.  In order to do this some of the poetry included does not refer to WW1.  I have also left some of the poems in their original language where I could not find a suitable translation.  Some people have suggested using Google Translate but the problem there is that you may possibly find out what the poem is about but the essence of the poem will be completely lost.

There is currently discussion of "what is war poetry?" "what is a poet?" and, perhaps even more importantly, "why poetry".  My project is a little different to many of the books on First World War Poetry.  It is not academic as such but has the aim of encouraging people who may not know much about poetry or about the First World War to find out more about the people who wrote poetry at that time and maybe even produce their own artistic contribution to the commemorations.

Quite a few people have been kind enough to contact me with names of poets but it is sometimes clear that they haven't read through my list.   I realised this is because it has been quite difficult to find so - with grateful thanks to everyone who has suggested a poet - here is a special page dedicated to the list.

As you will see from the list of books I have read - under "Bibliography" on the main page - when it comes to English language poets I have drawn heavily - but not entirely - from Catherine W. Reilly's magnificent work "English Poetry of the First World War A Bibliography", which is a joy to read.

I do not comment upon the poems - I prefer to let the reader judge.  I  have also included poetry written by schoolchildren as this was the first truly global conflict where every man, woman and child did their bit and risked their lives.  

As always, if you know of a poet who is not already on the list, please let me know - or if you spot a mistake, or if you'd just like to chat about women poets in World War One ...

With thanks for Michael "Bully" for bringing Mary R. Richardson - a British poet brought up in Canada - to my attention and to Evangeline of the Edwardian Promenade for reminding me about Ada and Ethel Peters, two American poets who were sisters.   Thanks are also due to Penelope Monkhouse and Martin Zieren in Germany for their fantastic help in finding German-language poets.  And thanks to Margaret Stetz, Michael Shankland, Geoff Harrison, Debbie Cameron, Jane Crossen, Maria Coates, Cathy Sedgwick, Marion Devoy, Phil Dawes and Stanley Kaye for their invaluable and continuing help and encouragement.   Thanks also to Dominic Sheridan, who is doing the most wonderful work highlighting Australian WW1 poets, writing his own poetry and helping me to find Australian poets, to Steve Cloutier of Halifax for a huge bundle of Canadian poetry books which I am slowly working through and to Patrick and Lisa of the Atlantic Canadian Poets Archive for help in finding poets from Newfoundland and the Facebook Page War Poets 1914 - 1918. Thanks also to the archivists of the schools whose poems I have included and the relatives of poets who have contacted me because of my weblog.   Your help is very greatly appreciated. Thank you all so much.

FEMALE POETS OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR

REVISED LIST JANUARY 2015

GREAT BRITAIN
Britain declared war on Germany on 4th August 1914 due to their breach of Belgian neutrality

Helen ABERCROMBY
Nellie ABRAHAM
Margot Robert ADAMSON (b. 1898)
Georgette AGNEW (1865 – 1957) – born Alexandra Georgette Christian
May ALDINGTON
Alice Maud ALLEN - pen name Allen Havens
Marian ALLEN (1892 – 1953) b. Australia
Beatrice ALLHUSEN
Joyce AMPHLETT (1897 - ?) - British, VAD in WW1
Eveline AMSTUTZ
Jessie Annie ANDERSON (b. 1861) Scottish
Lilian M. ANDERSON (“Leave in 1917”)
Marion E. ANGUS (1866 – 1946) - Scottish
Eva ANSTRUTHER (1869 - 1935) - British; director of The Camps Library
Margaret ARMOUR (1860 – 1943) - Scottish
Nellie M. ARMSTRONG
Adelaide Victoria ARNOLD (1860 - 1933) - nee England; pen name A.V. Arnold (Mrs J.O. Arnold)
Lilly Gordon ASCHER
Lady Dorothy Emily Augusta ASHMORE 
Martha ASKEW 
Millicent ASTON

Edith BAGNOLD (1889 - 1981) (Nurse then driver in France)
Bertha Blacker BAILY
Stella M. BAINBRIDGE
Madeline Stuart BAKER
Evelyn D. BANGAY (1889 - 1987)
Pauline BARRINGTON
Brenda Shreeve BARTLETT - Queen Mary's Army Auxiliary Corps
Pauline BATE
Rachel BATES (Wirral)
Dorothy Julia BAYNES - pen name Dormer Creston
Mary BEAZLEY
Madeline Ida BEDFORD
Janet BEGBIE (daughter of poet Harold Begbie)
Irene Brittain BELL
Maud Anna BELL (1868 - 1957) - Serbian Relief Fund
Frances BELLERBY (1899 – 1975)
Lilian M. BELLETTI
Stella BENSON (1892 - 1933)
Louisa E. BENT
Baroness Beatrice De BERTOUCH
Matilda BETHAM-EDWARDS (1836 – 1919)
Ursula BLOOM
Agnes BLUNDELL
Endi BLYTON (1897 - 1968)
Hannah BOLLAND
Nora BOMFORD(1894 - 1968)
Kate Y.A. BONE (1897 – 1991)
Freda C. BOND (1894 - 1973) worked in the Ministry of Labour from 1917
Jessie BONNYMAN
Gladys M. BONUS
Mary BOOTH
Lilian BOWES-LYON (1895 - 1949) - cousin killed September 1915; worked in a hospital
Mary Elizabeth BOYLE (brother killed in opening days of the War)
Mary Katherine BRADBY
Kathleen A. BRAIMBRIDGE
Catherine BRIDSON (1889 - 1956) (Liverpool, later Wirral)
Beatrix BRICE MILLER (1877 – 1959) – lady helper with the BEF 1914
Edith Maria BRIGGS
Sybil BRISTOWE (brother killed early 1917)
Vera BRITTAIN (1896 - 1970) (Nurse - VAD - Brother killed in Italy)
Blanche Adelaide BROCK
Meg BRODIE
Bertha BROWNSWORD
BRYHER (1894 – 1983)
Alice Mary BUCKTON (1867 - 1944) (Emigrated to South Africa)
Eliza BUDGEN
Anna BUNSTON DE BARY (1869 – 1954)
Beatrice BUNTING 
Kathleen E. BURNE (1879 - 1959)
Elizabeth Maud BUSKIN 
Irene BUTLER (1901 – 1944) Downe House Schoolgirl  
Margaretta BYRDE

Dilys CADWALADR (1902 - 1979)
Ella Stewart CALDWELL
Mary CAMERON
Amy CAMPBELL-STRICKLAND
Amy Wilson CARMICHAEL
Ellen Ada CARR
Catherine CARSWELL (1879 – 1946) - Scottish
C.A.L.T.
May Wedderburn CANNAN (1893 - 1973) (VAD + Intelligence Service; engaged to Bevil Quiller-Couch)
Amy CHAMBERS
Christina CHAPIN - school pupil during WW1
Florence CHAPMAN
Violet Dorothy CHAPMAN
Annie Vivanti CHARTRES
Mary G. CHERRY - Quartermaster Red Cross Hospital
Mary CHOLMONDELEY (niece of Stella Benson) (8.6.1859 – 15.07.1925) (worked as a clerk in Carlton House Terrace Hospital)
Agatha CHRISTIE (nee Miller) (1890 – 1976 ) - VAD Torquay
Jean CLARE - from Keighley, Yorkshire - "Verses" 
Amy Key CLARKE
G. Taverner CLARKE
Isabel Constance CLARKE (born Plymouth)
Mrs T. Turner CLATWORTHY
Marie E. CLAY (Warwickshire)
Florence CLEE
Mary CLEPHANE
Florence CLIFFORD
Evelyne CLOSE
Florence M. CLOSE
Kathleen Montgomery COATES
Victoria Taylor COATS
Hylda Constance COLE
Dame Margaret Postgate COLE (1893 - 1980)
Ellen COLEMAN
Madeleine COLLIER
Alice E. COLLINGE (1869 – 1960)
Mary Gabrielle COLLINS – “Women at Munition Making”
Alice COLLY (“A Book of Verse”, Birmingham, Cornish Brothers,1916)
Helen Hester COLVILL
Lady Celia CONGREVE
Jane Elizabeth COOK
Alice M. Peppard COOKE
Frances CORNFORD (1886 – 1960)
Isabelle J. CORNWALL
Helen A. CORSER
Jessie COUTTS
Ethel CRABTREE
Elsie Paterson CRANMER
Edith A. CRAVEN
Ethel Marion CRAWFORD
Norah Mary CRAWFORD
Beatrice CREGAN
Julie CRITTEN
Alice R. CRON
Margaret CROPPER
Marjorie CROSBIE
Phyllis CROZIER
Helen Burnes CRUICKSHANK (1886 – 1975) - Scottish
Edith Mary CRUTWELL
Nancy CUNARD (1896 - 1965)
Mary M. CURCHOD
Annie Isabel CURWEN
Olive Eleanor CUNSTANCE (1874 – 1944) Lady Douglas

Jane DAREING - pen name ?
Clemence DANE (1888 - 1965)
Edith DART
Elizabeth DARYUSH  (Bridges; Daughter of Robert Bridges) (1887 - 1976)
Nelly DAVIDSON
May M. DAWSON
Mary DEANE
Christie DEAS
Emily DENBY
Helena DEREZINSKA (Lancashire)
Gladys DEVERELL
Mona DICKSON
Doreen Mollie DILLON
Helen DIRCKS
Jessica DISMORR (1885 - 1939) - poet and artist - nursed in France WW1
Mrs C. Oliver DOBELL
Eva DOBELL (1867 - 1963) (Niece of poet Sydney Dobell) - Nurse
Jocelyn Ashley DODD (1903 – 1986) Downe House school girl
May I.E. DOLPHIN
Constance M. DOMLEO
May DONEY
Jeannie DONNAN
Sarah DOUDNEY (1841 – 1926)
Olive Primrose DOWNES
Honor Camilla DOYLE (1888 - 1944)
Lily DOYLE 
Annie DREW
Agnes E. DREY (Lancashire)   
Agnes Mary Frances Robinson DUCLAUX
Mary DU DENEY
Anita DUDLEY 
Celia DUFFIN 
Ruth DUFFIN 
Ada DUXBURY

Aimee E. EAGAR
Helen Parry EDEN (1885 - 1960)
Emily EDIS
Edith E. EDMEADES
Alice ELLIOT
Elise EMMONS
Valerie L. ESSON
Ada M. ETESON
Kate EVEREST
Beatrice A. EYRE

Agnes S. FALCONER
Eleanor FARJEON (London; 1881 - 1965)
A. Muriel FARRER
Alice S.E. Downing FARRER
Marguerite FEW
Edith A. FIELDHOUSE
Lily FIELDHOUSE
Esme FIELDING
Lady Helen Emily FORBES
S. Gertrude FORD
Elizabeth Chandler FORMAN
Ellen Thornycroft FOWLER (1860 – 1929)
Helen Charlotte FOXCROFT
Julia FRANKAU - pen name Frank DANBY
Violet Helen FRIEDLAENDER (1879 - 1950)
Agnes FRY
Ella FULLER-MAITLAND
Katharine FURSE (1875 - 1952) VAD 
Margaret Cecilia FURSE

A. Violet GANDY
Lilian GARD
Dorothy Kempe GARDINER
Edith C. GERRARD
Beatrice GIBBS (1864 - 1944)
M.E. GIBSON
Emily P. GILL
Violet GILLESPIE
Helene GINGOLD
Miriam E. GLADWELL
Ethel GLAZEBROOK
Grace Mary GOLDEN
Maude GOLDRING
Mary GOODRICH
Muriel Elsie GRAHAM
Kathleen GRANT (1878 - 1924) - born Natal, S.A. Scottish father
Peggy GRANT
Lady Sybil GRANT
Alexandra Ethelreda GRANTHAM (eldest son killed WW1)
Rosaleen GRAVES (1894 - 1989) sister of Robert Graves. Nurse WW1
Claribel GRAY
Eleanor GRAY
Dorothy GRENSIDE
Alice Anne GRENVILLE, Duchess of Buckingham & Chandos
Nora GRIFFITHS
I. GRINDLEY - served in Queen Mary's Army Auxilliary Corps
Diana GURNEY
Dorothy Frances GURNEY (1858 – 1932)
E. GUY
Althea GYLES 

Genevieve HADGRAFT
Martha HALL
Mary E. HALL
Cicely HAMILTON (1872 – 1952) - Administrator Royaumont Abbey WW1
Helen HAMILTON
Mary C.D. HAMILTON (1850 - 1943) 
Irene HAMMOND
Clarice Laurence HANCOCK (1880 - 1968) m. Henry Knight Sadler 1920
Florence HARDEN
Blanche C. HARDY
Isabel Westcott HARPER
Mrs E. HARRIS
Ada May HARRISON
Annie HARTLEY
Minnie Louise HASKINS
Hester Periam HAWKINS
Julia M.A. HAWKSLEY
Auriol HAY
Florence Mary HAY-DRUMMOND, COUNTESS KINNOULL
Rosa Ayscoughe HAYDEN
Mrs HAYWARD - pen name Auntie Aitch
Ila HEARN
Effie Margret HEATH - pen name E.M. HOLDEN
Mary H.J. HENDERSON - Scottish
Dorothy HENKEL
Lucie HENLEY-WHITE
Agnes Crozier HERBERTSON
May HERSHEL-CLARKE (1850 – 1950)
Ethel May HEWITT
Mary HIGGS
Emily HIND
Louise HOARE
Marion HOCKLIFFE
Margaret HOBHOUSE
Madeleine HOLLAND (b. Rhodesia; studied Oxford) 
Constance HOLLAR
Winifred HOLTBY - Nursed, then drove ambulances in France
Amy Louisa HOLMES nee Rix - poem in memory of her son Private Philip George Holmes of the 2/7th Manchester Regiment, kia 23.071917 Petit Synthe
Theresa HOOLEY
Edith HOPE-SCOTT (Lancashire)
Amy A. HOPPER
Lily HORSWILL (? Liverpool) 
Ellen HUGHES (1862 - 1927) - Welsh
Violet HUNT (1862 – 1942)
Isobel Wylie HUTCHISON (1889 – 1982)
Winifred Margaret Lambart HUTCHINSON
Isobel Wylie HUTCHISON - Scottish
Mildred HUXLEY 

Phyllis ILIFF (fiancé killed France June 1918)
Claire INGLEDEW

Mrs Clement Nugent JACKSON
Catherine M. JACKSON (Wirral)

Laura Riding JACKSON (1901 – 1991)
Violet JACOB (1863 – 1946) - Born Violet Kennedy-Erskine in Scotland m. Major Arthur Jacob of 20th Hussars)
Muriel Leslie JACOBS
Grace JAMES
Storm JAMESON
Ianthe JERROLD (a schoolgirl in 1915 when she published a collection)
Elinor JENKINS (1893 – 1920)
Editha JENKINSON
Irene JENNINGS
Georgiana E.G. JEWITT 
Alice Gray JONES (1852 - 1943) Welsh 
Elizabeth Mary JONES (1878 - 1953) Welsh; Bardic name "Moelona". Margaret JOURDAIN
Louise JOUSIFFE
Anette JOYCE

Edith A. KAHIA (Lancashire)
Harriet KENDALL
Muriel KENNY
Ellen Blackwood KENYON
Anna Gordon KEOWN
Helen KEY
Harriet KING (1840 – 1920) Harriet Eleanor Hamilton-King
Annie L. KNOWLES (Lancashire)

Helen LANYON
Peggy LAWFORD
Lucy LAWRENCE
Margery LAWRENCE
Margaret E. LAYTON
Beatrice Adelaide LEES
Margaret M. LEESON
Diana LEGGE
Mabel LEIGH
Margaret LEIGH
Tiny LESLIE
Winifred Mabel LETTS (1882 – 1972) - Almeric Paget physiotherapist
Agnes Smith LEWIS
Dorothy Perch LEWIS
Kathleen LILLINGSTON
Ena Victoria LIMEBEER (1897 - 1984)
Alison LINDSAY
Olive E. LINDSAY (pen name Leo)
Ellen LING 
Eiluned LEWIS (1900 - 1979) Welsh
Olive E. LINDS
Mildred LOW
Mina LOY (1882 – 1966) Poet and Artist
Eva H. LONGBOTTOM (1893 - 1957) - blind poet and musician 
Audrey LUCAS (1898 – 1975) daughter of E.V. Lucas/Downe House - worked in French orphanage during school holidays
Marie C. LUFKIN
Sylvia LYND (1888 – 1952)
Geraldine E. LYSTER (Lancashire)

Bessie J.B. MacARTHUR (1889 – 1983) - Scottish
Christine MacLEOD (1880 – 1954)
Irene Rutherford McLEOD
Dame Rose MACAULAY (1881 - 1958) (Descendent of Lord Macaulay)
Mary Adair MACDONALD
Nina MACDONALD
Irene MACINTYRE
Helen MACKAY (1891 - 1965)
Margaret MACKENZIE
Lady Theresa Muir MACKENZIE
Annie MACKERETH (pen name Alpha)
Alice Eyre MACKLIN
Mary MAIR
Irene C. MAJOR
Marchioness Nadja MALACRIDA (1895 – 1934) Pen name Nadja
Louise MALLETT
Alice MANN
Miss Isobel MARCHBANK
Lily MARCUS
Nina MARDEL - VAD
Phyllis MARKS
Constance Sutcliffe MARRIOTT
Elsie R. MARTIN
Mary MARTINEAU
Susan MASEFIELD
Gladys M.  MASON
Lucy MASTERMAN
Ophelia George MATHER
Annie MATHESON
Olive MATTHEWS (1900 - ?) Downe House Schoolgirl
Alice MAUD
Ida MAY
Constance Louisa MAYNARD
Beatrice MAYOR
Irene Rutherford McLEOD
Marjorie McNAIR
Editha MELBOURNE
Helen MELDRUM
Kate MELLERSH
Amy MENDS-GIBSON
Maud G. MEUGENS (1873 - 1962)
Charlotte Mary MEW (1869 – 1928)
Elsie MEWIS (1888 – 1963) - Birmingham
Alice MEYNELL (1847 - 1922)
Viola MEYNELL (1885 - 1956) (Alice's daughter)
Jessie MILLER
Olga MILLER (nee KATZIN) (1896 - ?)
Sophie MILLER
Frances Evelyn MILLETT
Minnie MILNES
Hope MIRRLEES (1887 – 1978) “The Skull”
Helen MITCHAM
Miss G.M. MITCHELL
Naomi MITCHISON (1897 – 1999) Scottish – b. Edinburgh - nurse
Lady Gertrude MOBERLEY (1860 - ?)
Emily J. MONTGOMERIE
Anita MOOR
Constance MORGAN
Mary MOSTYN
Emma H. MOUNT
Gertrude MOUNT
A.E. MURRAY - served as a nurse; drove cars and motorcycles for the RFC

Edith NESBIT (1858 - 1924) (m. BLAND)
Elizabeth NESS
Eileen NEWTON
Madeleine NIGHTINGALE
Marion A. NORTHCOTE
The Honourable Eleanour NORTON (1881 - ? )
Miss Jane Prothero NOTT
Miss M.L. NOTT

Constance Mary OBBARD
Violet O'CONNOR
Juliet OGILVIE
Emily Caroline OLIPHANT 
Moira O'NEILL (1864 - 1955)
Carola OMAN (1897 - 1978) Nurse with Red Cross, Western Front 1916 - 1919 m. Sir Geralde Lenanton
Christine Grant Millar ORR (1899 – 1963)
Emily ORR
Florence OVERTON (Lancashire) 
Leslie Mary OYLER

Georgina B. PAGET
Margaret PAINTER
Monica PAINTER
Lydia Acadia PANTER
Mary Teresa PARNELL
Ethel F. PARR
Lydia Dorothy PARSONS
Charolotte E. PATERSON
M. Waller PATON
Elizabeth PAUL
Jane E. PEMBERTON
Beatrice PERRY
Margaret PETERSON (1883 – 1933)  Pen name:  Glint Green
Enid PETRE
Helen E. PHILLP
Kate PICKARD
Ruth PITTER (1897 - 1992) (Worked at the War Office 1915 - 1917)
Dorothy PLIMPTON
Dorothy PLOWMAN
Moyra PONSONBY (1901 - 1977)
Florence H. POOLE
Jessie POPE (1868 - 1941)  b. Leicester m. Edward Babington Lenton –  Volunteer at St. Dunstan’s home for blind servicemen WW1
Elinor POSTLETHWAITE
Irene R. POTTER
Constance POWELL - possibly Irish?
Mary PRALL
Marjorie PRATT
Joyce PRECIOUS
Ella PRESSIMER
Dorothea PRESTON
Sarah A. PRESTON
Louisa PRIOR 
Lillie PRITT

Inez QUILTER (1904 - 1978) - schoolgirl

Dollie RADFORD (nee Maitland) (1858 – 1920)
Elsie Spence RAE - Scottish?
Frances RADCLIFFE
Dorothy Una RATCLIFFE (1887 - 1967)
Judith RAYNER 
Sarah Jane REES (1839 - 1916) - Welsh; Bardic name "Cranogwen"
Rosaline REEVE
Gertrude RENNY
Constance Ada RENSHAW (Sheffield 1891 - 1964)
Enid RICHARDS (1901 – 1995) Downe House School girl
Dorothy RICHARDSON (b. Abingdon 17th May 1873 - d. Beckenham 17th June 1957. m. Alan Odle 1917)
Emmeline RICHARDSON
Mary R. RICHARDSON (1882 - 1961) b. UK brought up Canada
Norah RICHARDSON
Letitia RIDDELL-WEBSTER
Gladys RIDGWAY
Gwendoline ROBERTS
Ursula ROBERTS (1887 - 1975) (b. India; educated Highgate and London University) Pen name Susan MILES
Edith Ann ROBERTSON (1883 - 1973) - Scottish
Geraldine ROBERTSON-GLASGOW
Agnes Mary Frances ROBINSON (Agnes Mary Frances Robinson Duclaux)
Helena ROBINSON
Lady Arabella ROMILLY
Anne ROOKER
Helen ROOTHAM
Theodora Constance Mary ROSCOE (1889 - 1962) - worked in hospitals and munitions factories in WW1
Ellen ROSE
Hilda ROSEVEARE
Alice Mary Bowyer ROSMAN - emigrated to Australia b. north of England
Alice E. ROWE
Louise Jopling ROWE
Marjorie ROYCE
Margaret E. ROWNTREE (1899 – 1983) (nee Fish m. 1926) Born Fleetwood, Lancashire – student teacher at Edge Hill College, fiancé in British Army in Palestine WW1
Sybil RUSKIN

Lady Margaret SACKVILLE  (1881 – 1963)
Vita SACKVILLE-WEST (1892 - 1962)
Charlotte SALWEY
Constance SANDIFER(E) (1870 - 1949)
Dorothy L. SAYERS (1893 – 1957)
Ethel SCHEFFAUER
Lady Aimee Byng SCOTT (1868 - 1953) (pen name Alec Holmes)
Helen SEVEREZ
Rose E. SHARLAND
Elisa C. SHARPLEY
Fredegond SHOVE (nee MAITLAND) (1889 – 1949)
Emmie SILITO
Kathleen O. SIMMONDS
Evelyn SIMMS
Margaret Winefride SIMPSON (1888 - 1971) 
May SINCLAIR (born Rock Ferry, Wirral 1865 - 1946) Secretary to Dr Hector Monro. Travelled with Monro’s Mobile Ambulance Unit to France 1914
Edith SITWELL (born Scarborough 1887 - 1964)
Bertha Marian SKEAT
Gladys SKELTON (pen name John Presland)
Marie SMALLEY
Alice Mary SMITH (pen name Angela Gordon)
Cicely Fox SMITH (1882 - 1954) (Born Lymm, Cheshire; educated Manchester)
Margery SMITH
Stevie SMITH (1902 - 1971) "Not waving but drowning"
Jessica SOLOMON 
Elizabeth SPAVEN
Ellen SPENCER
Violet SPENDER (1890 - 1921) - brother killed November 1914
Eleanor SPENSLEY
Eva SPURWAY
Augusta SQUIRES
Mary ST. JOHN
Gertrude P. STANLEY
Mollie STANLEY-WRENCH
Freya STARK (1893 - 1993) - nurse
Frances Coen STEEL
Louise STEEVENS
Bessie May STEPHENS
Florence STEPHENS
Elizabeth Margaret STEPHENSON
Dorothy Emily STEVENSON
Dorothy Margaret STEWART
Edith Anne STEWART
Helen STOCKER (pen name Helen Cash)
Suzanne STONE
Marie Carmichael STOPES (1880 – 1958) (First female science lecturer at Manchester University)
Lady Constance STRACHEY
Ella M. STRATTON
Jan STRUTHER (1901 – 1953)
Alice Vandockum STUART (1899 - 1983)
Dorothy Margaret STUART 
Muriel STUART (1885 - 1967) (Founded P.E.N. Club in 1921)
Mary SULLIVAN
Millicent SUTHERLAND (1867 - 1955)(Milicent Gower, Duchess of Sutherland) Nurse in France. Painted by Victor Tardieu
Mary SYMON (Scottish) 
Annie Colenso SYMONS

Emily Howson TAYLOR (1879 –  ?)
Gwen TAYLOR
Rachel Annand TAYLOR (1876 – 1960)
Ruth TAYLOR
Eleanor TEE
E. Blanche TERRY
Joan THOMPSON  - With the Red Cross to France to nurse
Mary THOMPSON
Clara Pease THOMSON
Ada THORNE
Winfride THORNYHILL
Barbara M. TICKLE
Aelfrida TILLYARD (1883 - 1959)
Edith E. TODD
Evelyn TOLLEMACHE
The Hon. Grace Emma TOLLEMACHE
Sarah TOYE  
Iris TREE (1897 - 1968) (Bloomsbury Group - friend of Nancy Cunard)
Alys Fane TROTTER (1863 - 1962) lived in South Africa during 1890s
Mary TUCKER
Edith TUDOR-HART
Gertrude TURNLEY
Ada TYRELL
Dorothy M. TWEEDALE
Judith Brundrett TWESDALE
Margaret TYRRELL-GREEN

Emily UNDERDOWN
Evelyn UNDERHILL (1875 - 1941) - worked with SSAFA and Naval Intelligence
Emily UPCOTT

VAD - pen name - name unknown; served in Bournemouth 
Christine A.M. VAIZEY
Edith VAUGHAN
Gertrude E.M. VAUGHAN
Katherine VEASEY
Viviane VERNE
Florence A. VICARS
Alberta VICKRIDGE (b. Bradford) Educated Bradford Girls' Grammar. VAD nurse Torquay
Viviane VERNE

Helen Maud WAITHMAN
Edith M. WALKER
Mary F. WALKER
Katherine Montgomery WALLACE
Emma S.S. WALLINGTON
Maud WALSH
Mrs R.J. WALSHAW
Joan Emma Violet WARBURG (1903 - 1993)
Edith M. WARD
Lucy E. WARD
Irene E. Toye WARNER
Sylvia Townsend WARNER (1893 - 1978) Worked in Munitions Factory
Mary WEBB (1881 - 1927 b. Leighton, nr. Wrekin, Shropshire; educated Southport)
Edith WARREN
Gretchen WARREN
Isabel WARRY
Eleanor Whitmee WATSON
Charlotte WATTS
Genevieve Gwendoline WEBB (schoolgirl in WW1)
Mary WEBB
Mary Morison WEBSTER
M. Winifred WEDGWOOD  - VAD
Millicent WEDMORE
Dorothy WELLESLEY, Duchess of Wellington (1889 - 1956)
Zelda F.A. WEST
Edith Rolt WHEELER
Catherine Durning WHETHAM (Devon) 
Joan WHITBY (Downe House school girl)
Roma WHITE - pen name of Blanche WINDER
Peggy WHITEHOUSE
Lucy WHITMELL
Laura A. WHITWORTH
Anna WICKHAM (1884 - 1947)
Eirene WIGRAM
Helen F. WILKINS
Alice Helena Alexandra WILLIAMS  (1863 – 1957) – Welsh b. Dendranth
Carolyn Crosby WILSON
Margaret Adelaide WILSON
Marjorie WILSON
Susan WILSON
Ethel E. WINSER
Annie E. WOODCOCK
Margaret Louisa WOODS (1856 – 1945)
Maud M. WOODS 
Margaret Louise WOODS
Mary WOODS
Mary A. WOODS
Maud A. WORKMAN
Elizabeth WORDSWORTH (1840 - 1932) Great-niece of William Wordsworth
Georgina G. WYLIE


AMERICA
America declared war on Germany on 6th April 1917

Eleanor Hallowell ABBOTT (1872 – 1958)
Katharine ADAMS
Leonie ADAMS (1899 – 1988)
Zoe AKINS (1886 – 1958)
Margaret Steele ANDERSON (1867 – 1921) 
Mary R.S. ANDREWS
Margaret E. Du P. ARCHER

Karle Wilson BAKER (1878 – 1960)
Djuna BARNES (1892 – 1982)
Natalie Clifford BARNEY (1876 – 1972) lived in Paris for over 60 years
Pauline BARRINGTON (1876 - 
Katharine Lee BATES (12.081859 - 28.03.1929: "America the Beautiful")
Mary BORDEN (lived in England.  Mobile hospital in France)
Amy Sherman BRIDGMAN
Amelia Josephine BURR (1878 - 1968)

Nancy CAMPBELL
Mary Coles CARRINGTON
Grace Ellery CHANNING (1862 – 1937) War Correspondent France/Italy
Florence Earle COATES (1850 – 1927)
Helen Gray CONE (1859 - 1934)
Grace Hazard CONKLING (1878 - 1958)
Florence CONVERSE
Alice CORBIN
Ella F. COWAN
Adelaide CRAPSEY
Charlotte Holmes CRAWFORD
Helen Cole CREW
Gladys CROMWELL

Olive Tilford DARGAN
Mary Carolyn DAVIES
Emma Frances DAWSON
Lucia DILLENBACH
Hilda DOLITTLE or H.D. (1886 – 1961) 
Louise DRISCOLL


Amelia EARHART (1897 - 1937) - VAD in Canada
Gabrielle ELLIOTT (American Fund for French Wounded; Nursing Committee for the Council of National Defence)

Isabelle Howe FISKE
Margaret Helen FLORINE
S. Gertrude FORD
Lena Gilbert Brown FORD
Jeanne Robert FOSTER
Florence Kiper FRANK

Theodosia GARRISON
Jessie W. GIBBS
Charlotte Perkins GILMAN (1860 – 1935)
Muriel Elsie GRAHAM (1909 - 1987)
Kate Evans GRAVESTEIN
Agnes Kendrick GRAY
Louise Imogen GUINEY (1861 - 1920)

Alice Corbin HENDERSON (1881 - 1949)
Mary M.J. HENDERSON (Lived in UK. Went to Russia and Serbia with Dr. Elsie Inglis and The Scottish Hospitals)
Nellie Parker HENSON
Mary Thacker HIGGINSON
Florence Taber HOLT
Lynn Harold HOUGH
Katherine HOWARD
Nellie HURST

Minna IRVING - pen name of Minna ODELL

Laura Riding JACKSON (1901 – 1991) born Laura Reichenthal in New York

Aline KILMER (1888 – 1941) b. Aline MURRAY m. poet Joyce Kilmer 1908
Sara Beaumont KENNEDY
Loren H.B. KNOX

Mrs. LACOSTE
Lilian LEVERIDGE
Amy LOWELL (1874 - 1925)

Florence Ripley MASTIN
Moina BELLE MICHAEL (The Poppy Lady) (1869 – 1944) YMCA
Aline MICHAELIS
Ruth Comfort MITCHELL
Edna St. Vincent MILLAY (1892 – 1950) Pen name Nancy BOYD
Harriet MONROE Founded and edited “Poetry” – first American magazine dedicated to poetry
Marianne MOORE (1887 – 1972)
Angela MORGAN
Mrs John Archibald MORISON 
Ada Foster MURRAY (1856 - 1936) - mother of Aline Kilmer

Grace Fallow NORTON (1876 – 1926)

Vilda Sauvage OWENS

Dorothy PARKER (1893 – 1967)
Josephine Preston PEABODY
Ada PETERS
Ethel PETERS
Mary PIERCY

Beatrice Witte RAVENEL
Lisette Woodworth REESE (1856 – 1935)
Laura Elizabeth Howe RICHARDS (1850 – 1943) 1917 Pulitzer Prize winner
Edith Grenstead ROCHESTER
Edith RUTTER-LEATHAM

Vida Dutton SCUDDER (1861 - 1954)
Elizabeth R. SEIVER
Odell SHEPARD
Katherine SIMONS
Gertrude SMITH
Marion Couthouy SMITH
Anne Higginson SPICER
Gertrude STEIN (1874 – 1946) moved to France 1903; drove medical supplies to hospitals during WW1
Charlotte Perkins STETSON 
Elizabeth Townsend SWIFT

Belle Gray TAYLOR
Sara TEASDALE (1918 Pulitzer Prize)
Lesbia THANET
Sigourney THAYER
Edith Mathilda THOMAS (1854 - 1925)
Rose Hartwick THORPE (1850 – 1939) 
Ada TYRRELL 

Jean Starr UNTERMEYER

Grace O. VANAMEE (1876 - 1946)
Marie van VORST (Organised American Ambulance Corps; set up workshops in Rome)

Mrs G.O. WARREN
Winifred WELLES (1893 – 1939)
Carolyn WELLS (1862 - 1942)
Edith WHARTON (1862 - 1937)  - lived in Paris WW1 as a nurse
Ella WHEELER WILCOX (1850 - 1919) Travelled to the Western Front in 1918 to entertain the American Troops
Margaret WIDDEMER
Margaret ADELAIDE WILSON
Elinor WYLIE (1885 – 1928)


ARGENTINA
Argentina remained neutral during the First World War, however, British ships were allowed to use Argentine ports.   German U-boats sank some Argentine ships which resulted in anti-German demonstrations.   In September 1918, the Argentine agreed to sell surplus wheat to Britain and France.
 
Ada Maria ELFLEIN (1880 - 1919)


ARMENIA
Came under the rule of the Ottoman Empire which joined the Central Powers against the Allies

Shushanik KURGHINIAN (1876 – 1927)


AUSTRALIA
Member of the British Empire; pledged and sent support and aid before 4th August 1914.


Ethel ANDERSON (1883 – 1958)
Tilly ASTON (1875 – 1947)

Ruth BEDFORD (1882 – 1963)
Margery Ruth BETTS
Mary BRIGHT
Mary Grant BRUCE (1878 – 1958)
Emily BULCOCK (1877 – 1969)

Ada CAMBRIDGE (pen name A.C.) (1844 - 1926)
Muriel Beverly COLE
Miss COWLISHAW - pen name "Pro Patria"
Emily COURGEAU
Martha COXHEAD
Violet B. CRAMER
Zora CROSS (1890 – 1964)
Margaret CURRAN (1887 – 1962)

Dulcie DEAMER (1890 – 1972)
Enid DERHAM (1882 – 1941)
Marion DOWNES

Edith May ENGLAND (1899 – 1979)
Nellie EVANS (1883 - 1944)

Lala FISHER
May Hannay FOOTT (1846 – 1918) – younger son killed Passchendaele
Mabel FORREST
Mary Elizabeth FULLERTON (1868 – 1946)

Joanne E. GILES
Dame Mary GILMORE (1965 - 1962) 
Vida Jane GOLDSTEIN
Alice Muriel GORE-JONES

Lesbia HARFORD (1891 – 1927)
Emily 'Beryl' HENSON (1887 - 1969) - nurse in WW1
Sybil HEYDEN
Amy D. HIRST
Ada Verdun HOWELL (1902 – 1981)

Mary INGER - nurse in WW1

Winsome JENNINGS
Alice Muriel Gore JONES (1887 – 1961)

Doris Boake KERR (1889 - 1944) - Pen name Capel Boake 
May KIDSON
Janie Kranklin Louisa KING
Marion Miller KNOWLES

Louisa LAWSON (1848 – 1920)
May LEACH
Jessie Sinclair LICHFIELD (1883 – 1956) 
Maud Renner LISTON 
Agnes LITTLEJOHN

Nora McAULIFFE
Dorothy Frances McCRAE
Catherine McDOUGALL
Ella McFADYEN
Eleanor MACKINNON
Louise MACK (1870 – 1935)
Dorothea MACKELLAR (1885 – 1968)
Florence Elizabeth MEYNELL 
Madoline (Nina) MURDOCH (1890 - 1976)

Joice NANKIVELL (1887 - 1982)
Helen M. NIGHTINGALE ? Australian poet and librettist who nursed at The 3rd General Hospital in London (I am not certain Helen was Australian)

Nettie PALMER (1885 – 1964)
Dorothy Frances PERRY
Marie E.J. PITT (1869 – 1935) 
Mrs. E. POWER-PINN 
Helen POWER  (1870 - 1957) born in Tasmania
Maud V. PRIMROSE

Mary Ann ROBERTSON
Philadelphia N. ROBERTSON (1866 - 1951) - Red Cross Administrator
Agnes ROSE-SOLEY - pen name Rose de Boheme
Alice ROSS-KING(1887 - 1968) - nurse in WW1
Dorothy C. ROWSELL

Elizabeth SCOTT (1833 – 1929)
Mrs A.lexandra SEAGER (1870 - 1950)
Helen de Guerry SIMPSON
Elizabeth A. SMITH
Frances M. Edgworth SOMERS (1899 - ?)

Marjorie Kane SMYTH (1888 - 1974) - VAD in WW1 
Christina Erica STROM (1892 - 1984) - nurse in WW1

Ethel TURNER (1872 - 1958 - born Doncaster, England)

Ellie WEMYSS
Anna WICKHAM (born in England) 
Mary L. WYATT (? – 1941)


AUSTRIA

Part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire

Vicky BAUM (1888 – 1960)

Maria Eugenie Delle GRAZIE (1864 – 1931)



AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN EMPIRE 
The Empire in 1867 - 1918 consisted of Austria, Hungary, Croatia-Slavonia and Bosnia & Herzegovina. One of the Central Powers in WW1.

Rose AÜSLANDER (11.05.1901 – 03.01.1988) b. Bucovina
Marie RUDOFSKY (1869 - 1946)
Paula LUDWIG (1900 – 1974)

Martina WIED (1882 - 1957)

Beatrice VALE BEVAN (1876 - 1946) Mrs Willett Bevan 'BVB'
Elizabeth von AMIN (1866 – 1941)

BELGIUM
A Federal Monarch since 21st July 1831, neutral Belgium and Luxembourg were invaded by German Army in 1914

Marguerite COPPIN (1867 – 1931) – became Woman Poet Laureate

Alice NAHON (1896 – 1933)
Marie NIZET (1859 – 1922)


BRAZIL
Initially neutral, Brazil declared war on the Central Powers in 1917, owing to attacks on their shipping

Cora CORALINA (20 August 1889 – 10 April 1985)

Cecilia MEIRELES (7.11.1901 – 9.11.1964)

Adaligsa NERY (29.10.1905 – 7.6.1980)


BULGARIA
14th October 1915, joined the Central Powers by declaring war on Serbia

Elisaveta BAGRYANA (1893 – 1991)
Dora GABE (1886 – 1963)


CANADA
Member of the British Empire; raised regiments and sent an expeditionary force immediately.

Marion ANNING 
Elmina ATKINSON

Gertrude BARTLETT
Grace BLACKBURN 
Jean BLEWETT (1872 - 1934) 
Minnie Hallowell BOWEN  (1861)
Louise Morey BOWMAN 
Lillie A. BROOKS

Mrs E. Arakie COHEN - b. England, Cambridge. Pen-name Sheila RAND
Helene Jane COLEMAN (1860 - 1953)
Alice Helen COLLINS

Annie Charlotte DOULTON  
Anna DURIE (1856 - 1933) - travelled to England during WW1

Amelia Beers GARVIN (1878 - 1956) - pen name Katherine HALE 

Susan Frances HARRISON (1859 - 1935) - pen name Seranus
Norah M. HOLLAND (1876 - 1925)
Elspeth HONEYMAN


Edna JAQUES
Marie JOUSSAYE (1864 - 1949)

Esther Wilson KERRY

Lilian LEVERIDGE 
Florence Randal LIVESAY

Elizabeth Roberts MacDONALD
Annie Bethune MACDOUGALD
Agnes Maule MACHAR
Isabel MACKAY (Isabel Ecclestone - 1875 - 1928)
Lucy Maud MONTGOMERY (1874 - 1942) 
Blanche E. Holt MURISON

Marjorie L.C. PICKTHALL (1883 - 1922)

Beatrice REDPATH
Mazo de la ROCHE
Amy Redpath RODDICK 

Virna SHEARD 
Eloise STREET (1893 - ?)
Ruth STRONG
Mabel L. STUART 

Isabelle B. WATSON 
Alice Maud Dudley WINLOW 
Margaret Hilda WISE


CHILE
Main producer of nitrates needed for explosives.  Battle of Coronel 1st November 1914 off the coast of Chile. Chile declared war on the Allies in December 1914 and sued for peace in February 19198.

Gabriela MISTRAL (1889 - 1957 - pen name of Lucila Godoy Alcayaga)

Winett de ROKHA (1892 – 1951)


CHINA
Initially neutral, sent a large contingent of men - Chinese Labour Force - to help the Allies behind the lines.  Declared war on Germany on 14th August 1917.   Chinese Labour Force workers cleared away the debris left by the war.


Bing XIN (1900 – 1999)


FINLAND

Finland was under the control of Russia during WW1.  After the October Revolution in Russia in 1917, Finland signed a peace treaty with Germany on 7th March 1918.


Katri VALA (1901 – 1942)
Edith SODERGRAN (1882 – 1923)
Kerstin SODERHOLD (1897 – 1943)


FRANCE
Once they had occupied Belgium, the German Army advanced into France.  The first battle for France took place at Mons on 23rd August 1914.  After the Franco-Prussian War ended in 1971 France had lost Alsace and Lorraine to Germany.  Although they were close enough to shell Paris, the French capital remained free for the duration of WW1.

Adrienne BLANC-PERIDIER (1884 – 1965)

Claude CAHUN (1894 – 1954)
Henriette CHARASON (1884 – 1972)

Marie DAUGUET (1860 - 1942)
Lise DEHARME (1898? - 1980)
Lucie DELARUE-MARDRUS (1874 – 1945) nurse in WW1
Marguerite DURAND (Editor of La Fronde)

Rosemonde GERARD (1886 - 1953)

Myriam HARRY (Maria Rosette SHAPIRA) (1869 – 1958)
Nicolette HENNIQUE (1886 – 195?)

Amelie MURAT (1882 - 1940)

Anna de NOAILLES (1876 - 1933)

Louisa PAULIN (1888 - 1944)
Valentine PENROSE (1898 – 1978) nee Boué
Cecile PERIN (1877 - 1959)

Marie de REGNIER (1875 – 1963) nee de Heredia;  Nom de Plume - Gerard d’HOUVILLE
Isabelle RIMBAUD (1860 – 1917)

Valentine de SAINT-POINT (1875 – 1953)
Cecile SAUVAGE (1883 - 1927)
Henriette SAURET (1890 - ?)

Colette YVER (1874 – 1953)

Renée ZELLER (1887 - )


GERMANY
One of the Central Powers in WW1.  Kaiser Wilhelm was a cousin (hey were grandsons of Queen Victoria) of the Russian Tsar Nicholas II and British King George V.

Albertine ADERMANN
Lou ALBERT-LAZARD (1885 – 1969) – poet/artist

Anna BAHR-HILDENBERG
Emmy BALL-HENNINGS (1885 – 1948) m. Hugo Ball DADA poet
Maria BENEMANN (1887 – 1980)
Trude BERNHARD
Frida BETTINGEN (1865 – 1924)
Clara BLÜTHGEN
Luise von BRANDT
Bess BRENCK-KALISCHER - née Betty Levy (1878 Rostock - 1933 Berlin)

Anni FABER
Marie FEESCHE (1871 - 1950)
Andrea FRAHM
Isla FRANKE (1881 - 1938) - became Ise GROPIUS

Claire GOLL (1890 - 1977)
Alice Freiin von GAUDY (1863 - 1929) 

Thea von HARBOW (1888 - 1954)
Henriette HARDENBERG (1894 – 1983) - nursed during WW1
Ricarda Octavia HUCH (1863 – 1947)

Marie Luise KASCHNITZ (1901 – 1974)
Eleonore KALKOWSKA (183 – 1937) - pen name Ira ad Sol
Julie KNIESE
Isolde KURZ (1853 - 1944)

Hedwig LACHMANN (1865 – 1918)
Lola LANDAU (1892 – 1990)
Elizabeth LANGASSER (1899 - 1950)
Berta LASK (1878 – 1967)
Mechthilde LICHNOWSKY (1879 – 1958)
Ite LIEBENTHAL (1886 Berlin – 1941? Riga)
Thekla LINGEN (1866 – 1931)
Sophie LÜBCKE
Paula LUDWIG (1900 – 1974)

Lya MARA
Elisabeth MEINHARD

Elizabeth PAULSEN

Agnes SAPPER (1852 - 1929)
Marie SAUER
Else Lasker SCHÜLER (1876 – 1945)
Ina SEIDEL (1885 - 1974)
Hilde STIELER-MEYER (1879 – 1965) 
Adelheid STIER 
Margarete SUSMAN

Else TORGE (1885 - ?)

Nell WALDEN (1887 – 1975)
Maria Luise WEISSMANN (1899-1929)



GREECE

King Constantine was a brother-in-law of Kaiser Wilhelm - his wife was Princess Sophia of Prussia. Initially Greece remained neutral but invaded Albania.  Greek Prime Minister Venizelos allowed British ships to use the Island of Lemnos as a naval base and from 3rd October 1915 Salonika was an important Allied military base.  Bulgaria invaded Greece in August 1916.  Greece declared war against the Central Powers on 30th June 1917.

Maria POLYDOURI (1902 – 1930)


HOLLAND

Remained neutral during WW1.  The Dutch Army had been mobilised since the assassination at Sarajevo.

Agnita FEIS (1881 – 1944)

Henriette Roland HOLST (1869 - 1952)

Augusta PEAUX (1859 - 1944)

Giza RITSCHL (1869 - 1942)

Nine van der SCHAAF (1882 - 1973)
Margo SHARTEN-ANTINK
Helene SWARTH (1859 - 1941)

Jacqueline van der WAALS (1868 - 1922)


INDIA

India, a member of the British Empire at the time, sent large quantities of men and money to help the Allied cause and Indian troops fought fiercely in many of the theatres of the conflict.  Their sacrifices in the cold climate of the Western Front are often overlooked.

Nalini Bala DEVI (1898 – 1977)

Sarojini NAIDU (1879 - 1949)


IRELAND

Ireland was in fact part of the United Kingdom at the time of the First World War.   Many Irishmen fought and many died in the conflict.

Eleanor ALEXANDER

Jane BARLOW (1897 – 1917)
Eva Gore BOOTH (1870 – 1956)
Georgina de Bellasis BOWEN-COLTHURST (1855 - 1921); son killed 1915
Elizabeth BOWEN (1899 – 1973)
Alice FURLONG (1875 – 1948)

Lady Augusta GREGORY (1852 – 1932)

Kathleen KNOX

Temple LANE (1899 – 1982)
Rosamund LANGBRIDGE (1880 – 1964)

Eirene MANDERS (Downe House school girl)
Rosa MULHOLLAND (Lady Gilbert) (1841 – 1921)

May NORTON (1876 – 1957)

May O'ROURKE (Became Secretary to Thomas Hardy in 1923)

Elizabeth SHANE
Dora Sigerson SHORTER (1866 - 1918)

Katherine TYNAN (1861 - 1931)

Helen WADDELL


ITALY

Italy declared war on the Austro-Hungarian Empire on 23rd May 1915 and on Germany on 29th August 1916.


Amalia GUGLIELMINETTI (1881 – 1941)

Ada NEGRI (1870 – 1945)


JAPAN

Japan was one of the Allies in WW1 and played a prominent role in keeping the Pacific and Indian Oceans clear of German ships.  Their first action was to support the British initiative in German Togoland in West Africa.


Akiko YOSANO (1878 - 1942)

Fukao SUMAKO (1893 – 1974)



LEBANON

The Lebanon was part of the Ottoman Empire in WW1.

May ZIADE (1886 – 1941)


MEXICO

Mexico was neutral for the duration of the war.  Germany tried to persuade Mexico to declare war on the United States of America.


Rosario Maria GUTIERREZ ESKILDSEN (1899 – 1979)


NEWFOUNDLAND

Newfoundland was not part of Canada until after WW2.  Their contribution to the war as a small Island is outstanding.  Men and women volunteered immediately and went to serve in the theatres of war.


Georgiana COOPER (1885 – 1980)

Rose M. GREENE

P. Florence MILLER (1889 - 1979)

NELL  Eunice T. 

Holbrook RUEL

Miss E. SPARROW

Marie E. WAY
Mrs E.C. WHITTEN


NEW ZEALAND

New Zealand, as a member of the British Empire, sent men, women, nurses, doctors, equipment, medical and financial aid to Britain.  Maori soldiers fought for the first time since the Boer War alongside New Zealand troops.  New Zealand sent a force to occupy German Samoa.

Mary Ursula BETHELL (1874 – 1945)

Violet COTTRELL (1887 – 1971)

Eileen DUGGAN (1894 – 1972)

Wilhelmina Sherriff ELLIOTT

Ivy Olive GIBBS (1886 – 1966)

Kathleen HAWKINS (1883 – 1981)

Alice Annie KENNY (1875 – 1960)

Jessie MACKAY (1864 – 1938)
Katherine MANSFIELD (1888 - 1923)

Lola RIDGE (1873 – 1941)
RIFLEMAN'S MOTHER

Lucy Evelyn SMITH

Lady Anne Glenny WILSON


PERSIA

Persia came under the rule of the Ottoman Empire in WW1.


Bahiyyih KHANUM (1846 – 1932)


POLAND

Poland did not exist as an independent country during WW1 with areas of the territory being part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, German Empire and Russian Empire.


Maria PAWLIKOWSKA-JASNORZEWSKA (24.11.1891 Krakow – 09.07.1945 Manchester)


PORTUGAL

Portugal is England's oldest ally - dating back to the time of John O'Gaunt whose daughter married the King of Portugal.  Portugal sent troops, equipment and medical personnel to help the Allies during WW1.

Fernanda de CASTRO (1900 – 1994)

Florbela ESPANÇA (1894 – 1930)

Marta MESQUITA DE CAMARA

Virginia VITORINO


ROMANIA

Romania had been part of the Ottoman Empire but after the Russo-Turkish War of 1877 - 1878, they declared independence and joined Russia.

Otilia CAZIMIR (1894 – 1967)
Maria CUNTAN (1862 – 1935)

Elena FARAGO (1888 – 1954)

Natalia NEGRU (1882 – 1962)

Izabela SADOVEANU-EVAN (24.02.1870 – 06.08.1941)

Elena  VACARESCU (21.9.1864 Bucharest – 17.02.1947 Paris)

Elizabeth of WIED (1843 – 1916)


RUSSIA

Russia was an important ally of Britain during WW1.  Tsar Nicholas II was a cousin of King George V - a grandson of Queen Victoria.


Anna AKHMATOVA (1889 -1966) from the Ukraine

Vera GEDROITS

Rachel ISRAEL (1890 – 1931)

Elizaveta POLONSKAJA (1890 - 1969)

Aleksandra KOUDASHEVA – woman soldier poet

Anna MARGOLIN (1887b - 1952)

Sophia PARNOT (1885 – 1933)

Nechama POCHACHEVESKI

Maria SKRIDLOVA – woman soldier poet

Marina TSVETAEVA (1892 – 1941)



SERBIA

After the First Balkan War (1913) the Treaty of London established an independent Albanian State and gave more land to Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro and Greece.  Although the Bosnian-Serb Separatists are blamed for providing the spark that lit the powder keg of WW1, Europe had been restless since the end of the Franco-Prussian War in 1871.


Jelena DIMITRIJEVIC (182 – 1945)

Danica MARKOVIC (1879 – 1932)

Jelena SPIRIDONOVIC SAVIC (1890 – 1974)


SOUTH AFRICA

A dominion state of the British Empire at the outbreak of WW1. Feelings ran high in some of the states following the Boer Wars.  Nevertheless South Africa joined the Allies, sending men, money, nurses and equipment to help the cause, with General Jan Smuts forming the South African Defence Force, conquering German South West Africa.



Ethel CAMPBELL

Daphne DE WAAL 

Edith L.M. KING (1871 - 1962)


SPAIN

Spain remained neutral and although they did not enter directly into the conflict, German troops were interned in Spanish Guinea in 1915.  Spain had a pact with Britain and France in the hopes that would prevent Germany colonising areas of North Africa.

Emilia Pardo BAZAN (1851 – 1921)

Rosa CHACEL (1898 – 1994)


SWEDEN

Sweden remained neutral throughout the conflict.  Following their involvement in the Napoleonic Wars, Sweden has lost over a third of her territory.


Elsa BESKOW (1874 – 1953)
Karin BOYE (1900 – 1941)


SWITZERLAND

Switzerland maintained a state of 'armed neutrality'.  Because of her geographical position at the heart of Europe, the country was a haven for refugees and an important centre of espionage, diplomacy and commerce.


Cécile LAUBER (1887-1981)

Francisca STÖCKLIN (1894 – 1931)


SYRIA

Syria was part of the Ottoman Empire in WW1.
Maryana MARRASH (1848 – 1919)

TURKEY

The centre of the Ottoman Empire

Halide EDIP ADINA (1884 – 1964)
Makbule ATADA (1885 – 1956)

SUKUFE Nihal BASAR (1896 - 1973)

Nigar HANIM (1856 – 1918)

Emine SEMIYE ONASY (1864 – 1944) – writer/nurse

Salime SERVET SEYFI 

Fatma ALIYE TOPUZ (1862 – 1936) 

Halide Nusret ZORLUTUNA (1901 - 1984)


URUGUAY

Uruguay remained neutral initially but declared war on Germany after the entry of America into the conflict in 1917, seizing German ships which had sought refuge in Montevideo Harbour.



Delmira AGUSTINI (1886 – 1914)

Juana de IBARBOUROU (1892 – 1979)

Alfonsina STOMI (1892 – 1938)



‘LOST SHEEP” – poets for whom I can find no information

Susan D'Arcy Clark
Marguerite EDGELOW 
E. Wykeham EDMONDS
Beatrice GIBBS
Blanche HARDY
Diana JAMES
Carla LANYON LANYON
Muriel NEWTON
Mary Doreen SPENDER
O.I. Ward Doreen
C. WATTS 
Mary Winter WERE

3 comments:

  1. What met amazes me about this long list is that I have only heard of a handful of them. Women were so unsung!

    ReplyDelete
  2. Probably stating the obvious but Hilary Douglas Clarke Pepler is not a woman. Prior to his catholic conversion he was called 'Harry' much as I am sure you have carefully researched your information perhaps having a quick search on each will clean up your list. Hilary is both a male and female name in England.

    ReplyDelete
  3. Many thanks In the Know - I have now rectified this error and placed 'Harry' in with the boys.

    ReplyDelete